Periodontal (gum) disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, are serious infections that, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss. The word periodontal literally means "around the tooth". Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth.
In the mildest form of the disease, gingivitis, the gums redden, swell and bleed easily. There is usually a little or no discomfort. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care. Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time, plaque can spread and glow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turn on itself, and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, forming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may have to be removed.
Periodontal (gum) treatments aim to control and stop gum disease. These procedures include scaling and root planning, gum surgery, crown lengthening, dental implants, and gum grafts.